Jerash is one of the historical cities of the world that dates back to the Neolithic period. This city is the capital of Jerash province in Jordan and is considered one of the most valuable cities in the Middle East. Founded in the second century BC, it is considered a Hellenistic city.
The city is located 48 km north of Amman and 40 km south of Jordan. Jerash should be considered the most spectacular city in Jordan, after the green city of Petra. Today, Jarash is known for its spectacular Roman and Byzantine ruins.
History and geography of Jerash
Urban Jerash is quite fertile and has always been so throughout history. The abundant water of this city makes agriculture prosperous and lush lands are found in it. The city has a temperate climate. Various fruit trees such as olive tree, fig tree, plum tree, eucalyptus, etc. can be seen in this city. The hills around Jerash have historically provided good pasture for livestock
The ruins of Jerash are located at an altitude of 500 meters and give a spectacular view of the low-lying areas around the city. The fertile fertile hills and valleys around Jerash have been preserved for at least 6,500 years.
The natural resources of this city caused it to grow rapidly and move away from its previous position. Jerash also stands at the point of trade and communication between Damascus and Petra, as well as trade routes from the north and west to the Mediterranean ports of Tire and Yupa (Jaffa) in present-day Lebanon and Israel, respectively.
The golden age of the city
The “Golden Age” of Jerash began during the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan, who in 106 AD recognized the city of Jerash in the new Roman province. The city became known as a commercial highway and its golden age was marked at the same time. By order of Trajan, several new roads were built in the city. These roads include Via Nova Traijana, Bosra and Ailaon.
When the Roman emperor Hadrian settled in this city in the winter of 129 AD, this residence led him to build the Arc de Triomphe or Hadrian’s Arch.
During the Byzantine period, many historical monuments were built in this city. Most important are the Flaccus Baths, which are still one of the most spectacular buildings in the city.
The Persian Sassanids captured, looted and occupied Jarash between 614 and 630 AD. This city was so weakened by the arrival of Arab troops in 636 BC that the city’s forces immediately surrendered.
During the caliphate of the Umayyads, the city suffered more damage and its rich families emigrated to Damascus. In fact, it was the emigration of the rich from Jerash that made the city weaker.
A series of earthquakes later turned Jerash into an uninhabitable place during the first two centuries of the Middle Ages.